Journal Search Engine
Search Advanced Search Adode Reader(link)
Download PDF Export Citaion korean bibliography PMC previewer
ISSN : 1225-5009(Print)
ISSN : 2287-772X(Online)
Flower Research Journal Vol.26 No.4 pp.179-186
DOI : https://doi.org/10.11623/frj.2018.26.4.02

Effect of GA3 and BA on Plant Growth of Ranunculus Cultivars

Ho-Geun Kwak, Young Ran Lee, Youn Jung Choi, Su Young Lee, Yun-Im Kang*
National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 55365, Republic of Korea
Corresponding author: Yun-Im Kang Tel: +82-63-238-6822 E-mail: yunimy@korea.kr
17/10/2018 07/12/2018 21/12/2018

Abstract


Ranunculus asiaticus characterizes colorful and attractive flower shapes that are related with the ornamental value of bulbous plants. Improving ornamental value of bulbous flowers has been the general goal of floricultural market. Gibberellic acid (GA3) and benzyladenine (BA) play an important role in growth and developmental processes in floriculture. Combinational treatments of these two hormones have been used in floriculture to improve flower quality. We assessed the effects of combined GA3 and BA, as well as the individual effects of each hormone, on growth characteristics using soil drench application to eight R. asiaticus cultivars, ‘Giallo Millepetali’, ‘Bianco Millepetali’, ‘Arancio Millepetali’, ‘Rosa SC’, ‘Arancio Pratolino’, ‘Giallo Pratolino’, ‘Bianco Pratolino’, and ‘Rosa Ch Pratolino’. GA3 treatments increased plant height and first flower size of R. asiaticus cultivars. Moreover, about 5 to 9 days to flowering were averagely shortened by GA3 treatments compared to controls. On the other hand, the opposites, including first flower size and days to flowering, were observed for cultivars treated with BA, compared with controls. Treatments of GA3 + BA generally affected growth traits, such as plant height, flower size, and the timing of flowering on some R. asiaticus cultivars. In particular, about 5 to 6 days to flowering were reduced on average by Treatments of GA3 + BA. Our results showed positive growth effects, including plant height, days to flowering, first flower height, number of flowers from the application of individual and combined hormones to R. asiaticus cultivars and demonstrate a role for these hormones in future bulbous floriculture.



초록


    Rural Development Administration
    PJ010961012017

    Introduction

    Ranunculus asiaticus L. originates from European countries, near the Mediterranean, and has been adapted to agricultural environments, including changes in climate and soil (Beruto and Debergh 2004;Dhooghe et al. 2012). R. asiaticus cultivars have been used as cut flowers or garden and potted flowers due to their ornamental values (Bernstein et al. 2005;Cerveny et al. 2012). R. asiaticus cultivars include adorable and well-formed flowers with various colors and long stems that are applicable for the ornamental plants (Bernstein et al. 2005;Shahri and Tahir 2011;Valdes-Aguilar et al. 2009). As these attributes are associated with the ornamental values of bulbous flowers, improved agronomical techniques are constantly required to promote floriculture (Sajjad et al. 2017).

    The application of plant hormones, such as GA and BA, have contributed to plant growth and development processes, via various complex signaling patterns (Gupta and Chakrabarty 2013;Yruela 2015). Plant growth regulators have been used to induce pre- or post-production of flower bulbs (Gupta and Chakrabarty 2013;Manimaran et al. 2017;Miller 2012;Sajjad et al. 2017;Yruela 2015). Various well known GA roles in plants include cell elongation, breaking seed-coat dormancy, seed germination, and flowering. These functions are related to quantitative and qualitative improvements in bulbous flowers (Gupta and Chakrabarty 2013;Manimaran et al. 2017;Yruela 2015). Several flower bulb species have been subjected to a wide range of GA3 concentrations in horticultural studies. For example, appropriate amounts of GA3 improved plant growth, flower number, and days to flowering (Chakraborty and Choudhuri 2016;Esfahani et al. 2016;Guney et al. 2016;Ramzan et al. 2014;Sarkar et al. 2014). Meanwhile, experiments with BA have been used to evaluate the quantity and quality of flower in bulb species (Asgari et al. 2014;Janowska 2014;Khan et al. 2011;Pogroszewska et al. 2007;Sajjad et al. 2015;Sharma et al. 2009). These two hormones have shown positive growth and developmental effects on bulbous flowers (Emami et al. 2011;Han 1995;Janowska 2013;Kim and Miller 2009). However, the effect of these hormones on Ranunculus remains unknown so far.

    Here, we applied GA3 and BA in combination or individually to identify the effects on the growth of eight Ranunculus cultivars; Giallo Millepetali (GM), Bianco Millepetali (BM), Arancio Millepetali AM, Rosa SC (RS), Arancio Pratolino(AP), Giallo Pratolino (GP), Bianco Pratolino (BP), and Rosa Ch Pratolino (RC). Our results showed an overall acceleration in flowering initiation in these cultivars by use of the plant hormones. Moreover, the combination of GA3 + BA affected other growth factors, including plant height, flowering and flower size and number.

    Materials and Methods

    The study was conducted in December 2016 at the experimental greenhouse (35°83´ N, 127°03´ E) of the floriculture research division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Republic of Korea. Bulbs of R. asiaticus were obtained from Bioancheri Creations (Camparosso Mare, Italy), and we selected eight cultivars: Giallo Millepetali (GM), Bianco Millepetali (BM), Arancio Millepetali AM, Rosa SC (RS), Arancio Pratolino(AP), Giallo Pratolino (GP), Bianco Pratolino (BP), and Rosa Ch Pratolino (RC) for the experiment. Gibberellic acid (GA3) and benzyl adenine (BA) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St Louis, MO, US). To evaluate the effects of GA3 combined with BA on plant growth characteristics, we used different combinations of these hormones: GA3 50 mg·L-1 + BA 100 mg·L-1 and GA3 100 mg·L-1 + BA 50 mg·L-1. Also, the two hormones were applied individually at 50 and 100 mg·L-1 to bulbs by soil drench (50 mL/pot) and the water was used for controls. Eight replicates per treatment were established. After treatment bulbs were transplanted into pots and stored in moist conditions at 7 °C for 2 weeks to induce sprouting and then planted in a greenhouse. Plant height, flower and leaf yield, flower size, days to flowering, and flowering duration were used to measure the growth of R. asiaticus cultivars. Data are expressed as means and standard errors (SE) of each treatment group. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA in SAS (version 9.2; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Differences between treatment groups were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05.

    Results and Discussion

    Growth characteristics of R. asiaticus cultivars

    Flower size and plant height are the important factors to evaluate ornamental quality of bulbous plants. R. asiaticus L., known as the “Turban Buttercup”, has an attractive color and flower size (Bernstein et al. 2005;Beruto and Debergh 2004;Cerveny et al. 2012;Dhooghe et al. 2012), which is an important part of its ornamental value. Especially, the long stem of R. asiaticus has been reported to be useful as the cut-flowers (Bernstein et al. 2005;Shahri and Tahir 2011;Valdes-Aguilar et al. 2009).

    We compared eight R. asiaticus cultivars each other to investigate the growth characteristics. GM, BM, AM, and RC cultivars generally showed higher plant height and first flower size than AP, GP, BP, and RC cultivars (Fig 1 and 2). The comparison between R. asiaticus cultivars has not been fully studied. The comparison on growth characteristics between cultivars is required to apply and cultivate various R. asiaticus cultivars. Our results showed growth patterns of R. asiaticus cultivars on the basis of plant height and first flower size for the further research.

    Effects of GA3 and BA

    Agronomical techniques for enhancing and accelerating flower growth and development are requisite factors in floriculture. Applications of hormones, such as gibberellic acid (GA3) and benzyl adenine (BA), produce quantitative and qualitative improvements that are related to cultivating and harvesting in the horticultural industry (Gupta and Chakrabarty 2013;Manimaran et al. 2017;Miller 2012;Yruela 2015). The combination of two hormones has shown positive effects on plant growth, including flowering, in bulb flowers (Emami et al. 2011;Han 1995;Janowska 2013;Kim and Miller 2009). In this study, we used GA3, BA, and combinations of the two hormones to assess the effects on growth characteristics of R. asiaticus cultivars.

    Table 1 showed the correlation analysis of growth and flowering traits of R. asiaticus cultivars by GA3 and BA. The plant height was significantly affected between cultivars and hormone effects in the correlation analysis (p ≤ 0.001). In detail, effects on growth and flowering traits of R. asiaticus cultivars by GA3 and BA treatments were indicated in Fig. 1 and 2. Despite some negative effects of plant height of R. asiaticus cultivars, the treatments of GA3 generally increased the plant heights, especially AP, GP and PM with significant difference (p ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, BA treatments showed positive and negative variations of plant height. Decreases of plant heights were observed in concentrations at BA 100 and 200 mg·L-1 treatments R. asiaticus cultivars, except for GM and AM, with significant difference (p ≤ 0.05). Ranunculus has been utilized in several forms, including cut, pot, and garden flowers (Bernstein et al. 2005;Cerveny et al. 2012). Plant height, including stalk length of flowers, is one of the major factors of ornamental applications. In general, GA3 increased plant height, including stem length, in allium, gladiolus, iris, lily, tulip, as well as Ranunculus sp. (Chakraborty and Choudhuri 2016;Dogra et al. 2012;Guney et al. 2016;Khan et al. 2011;Mayoli et al. 2009;Ramzan et al. 2014;Sajid et al. 2009;Sajjad et al. 2015;Sarkar et al. 2014). GA3 has been applied to Ranunculus sp. in shade treatments to increase flower stem length (Mayoli et al. 2009). The effects of GA3 on plant length were also observed in R. asiaticus cultivars in this study. In contrast, no significant effects of BA applications on length of bulbous flowers were reported in previous studies (Asgari et al. 2014;Khan et al. 2011;Sajjad et al. 2015). However, the plant height of bulb flowers was enhanced by BA treatments in another study (Sharma et al. 2009). Applications of BA did not affect the stem length of R. asiaticus cultivars in this study.

    Growth traits related with the flowering are important to evaluate ornamental values of flowers because these factors affect the floricultural industry. Days to flowering, flower size and number of flowers were significantly affected between cultivars and hormone effects in the correlation analysis (p ≤ 0.05, p ≤ 0.001) (Table 1). We investigated days to flowering, first flower height, and number of flowers from R. asiaticus cultivars by GA3 and BA treatments (Fig. 1). R. asiaticus cultivars treated with GA3 generally flowered earlier with significant results (p ≤ 0.05, p ≤ 0.01, and p ≤ 0.001). Conversely, the days to flowering were significantly longer in R. asiaticus cultivars treated with BA at the higher concentration (p ≤ 0.05, p ≤ 0.01, and p ≤ 0.001). GA3 and BA have been shown to affect days to flowering in flowers of iris, gladiolus, tulip, and Ranunculus sp. (Dogra et al. 2012;Mayoli et al. 2009;Ramzan et al. 2014;Sajjad et al. 2015;Sarkar et al. 2014;Taha 2012). Most studies reported that GA3 treatments reduced the days to flowering (Dogra et al. 2012;Mayoli et al. 2009;Ramzan et al. 2014;Sajjad et al. 2015;Sarkar et al. 2014;Taha 2012). Our results for GA3 treatments were similar to those in previous research. Sajjad et al. (2015) showed that BA-treated Gladiolus initiated flowering later, compared with controls. Delayed periods of first flowers of R. asiaticus cultivars were also observed in this study. Overall, GA3 treatments increased first flower height of R. asiaticus cultivars. In particular, the first flower size was significantly increased by GA3 treatment at the concentration of 100 and 200 mg·L-1 compared with the controls (p ≤ 0.05, p ≤ 0.01, and p ≤ 0.001). By contract, the decrease of first flower height was observed by BA treatment in R. asiaticus cultivars. Mayoli et al. (2009) demonstrated that GA3 increased flower head diameters of Ranunculus sp. Studies of the effects of BA on flower growth demonstrated that bulb flowers showed no significant improvement in terms of floret features (Asgari et al. 2014;Janowska 2014;Pogroszewska 2007;Sajjad et al. 2015). A similar tendency was observed in the R. asiaticus cultivars in this study. The number of flowers was significantly affected by the application concentrations in the correlation analysis (p ≤ 0.001) (Table 1); however it is difficult to find proportional changes in numbers of flowers of R. asiaticus cultivars by treatments of GA3 and BA at each concentration. Some significant increases of number of flowers were observed in the hormone treatments. In particular, BA 10 mg·L-1 treatments showed the significant increases of number of flowers in some R. asiaticus cultivars (p ≤ 0.05). The positive effects of GA3 and BA applications have been reported in bulbous plants, including allium, calla, gradiolus, narcissus, and Ranunculus (Asgari et al. 2014;Mayoli et al. 2009;Pogroszewska 2007;Sarkar et al. 2014; Zanowska et al. 2014). Especially, only GA3 100 mg·L-1 treatment showed the significant increase of number of Ranunculus flowers, except for higher concentrations (Mayoli et al. 2009). The increases of number of flowers by GA3 and BA treatments were also observed in our research.

    Effects of GA3 + BA

    We applied the mixture of GA3 and BA to evaluate the combinational growth effects on R. asiaticus cultivars (Fig. 3). Some treatments showed positive effects the plant height. The significant increase were detected in combinations of GA3 + BA at AP, GP, and RC cultivars compared with controls (p ≤ 0.05). Days to flowering was generally reduced by treatments of the mixture of BA and GA3, except for AM cultivar. The cultivars, BP and RC, showed the decreases of days for flowering. In particular, the combinations of GA3 100 mg·L-1 + BA 50 mg·L-1 significantly reduced days to flowering of BP cultivar (p ≤ 0.05). The improvements of first flower heights of R. asiaticus cultivars were partly observed in some cultivars such as GM, AM, AP and RC with the significant results (p ≤ 0.05). Overall, combined treatments not significantly showed positive effects of numbers of flowers of R. asiaticus cultivars; however some treatment were affected in RS and RC.

    A combination of GA4+7 and BA was shown to elongate stem lengths in tulips (Kim and Miller 2008). This effect was also observed in our study in several cultivars. The combined treatment of GA3 and BA decreased the days to flowering of R. asiaticus cultivars. Even though there are a limited number of studies of the combined effects of GA3 and BA, our data may provide sufficient information to control flowering in these plants. The hormone treatments GA3 + BA partly induced greater flower heights and diameters in this study. A combination of hormones was used to evaluate the growth characteristics of Calla flowers, but showed no positive effects on flower size (Janowska 2013). Even though our results were partly similar to those of Janowska (2013), we observed the positive effects on flower heights and diameters in one R. asiaticus cultivars. The application of using GA3 plus BA have revealed the higher yield of Calla flowering (Janowska 2013). Even though these are no significant differences in data, the increase in the flower number was observed in the GA3 plus BA treatments of R. asiaticus cultivars.

    In conclusion, we measured growth characteristics of R. asiaticus cultivars treated with individual or combined GA3 and BA. Each hormone and the mixture of them positively affected the growth and flowering characteristics, such as plant height, flower size, flower yield, and days to flowering in R. asiaticus cultivars. In particular, days to flowering was shortened by treating GA3. On the other hand, BA treatments delayed days to flowering of R. asiaticus cultivars. Moreover, our results showed the growth characteristics on the cultivars of R. asiaticus. More specific and diverse research is needed to understand the positive role of hormones in plant cultivation. This study contributes towards further research of related bulbous flowers.

    Acknowledgements

    This study was supported by the Agriculture Science and Technology Development (Project No. PJ010961012017), Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea.

    Figure

    FRJ-26-179_F1.gif

    Influence of GA3 (A, C, E, and G) and BA (B, D, F, and H) treatments on plant height (A and B), days to flowering (C and D), first flower height (E and F), and number of flowers (G and H) of R. asiaticus cultivars. Plants were drenched by 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 mg·L-1 of GA3 and BA. Results were expressed by the mean ± S.E.

    FRJ-26-179_F2.gif

    Effects of GA3 and BA treatment on plant growth of R. asiaticus cultivars. Eight R. asiaticus cultivars, Giallo Millepetali (A), Bianco Millepetali (B), Arancio Millepetali (C), Rosa SC (D), Arancio Pratolino (E), Giallo Pratolino (F), Bianco Pratolino (G), and Rosa Ch Pratolino (H), were planted in pots at the greenhouse. Each R. asiaticus cultivar was drenched by 50 mL/pot of GA3 (top) and BA (bottom) for 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 mg·L-1 (left to right), respectively.

    FRJ-26-179_F3.gif

    Influence of GA3 + BA treatments on plant height (A) days to flowering (B), first flower height (C), and number of flowers (D) of R. asiaticus cultivars. Plants were drenched by GA3 50 mg·L-1 + BA 100 mg·L-1 and GA3 100 mg·L-1 + BA 50 mg·L-1. Results were expressed by the mean ± S.E.

    Table

    Summary of the correlation among the growth and flowering characteristics, plant height, days to flowering, first flower height, and number of flowers of pot R. asiaticus cultivars as affected by GA3 and BA based on ANOVA.s

    Reference

    1. AsgariS , MoradiH , AfshariH (2014) Evaluation of some physiological and morphological characteristics of Narcissus tazatta under BA treatment and nano-potassium fertilizer . J Chem Health Risks4:63-70
    2. BernsteinN , IoffeM , BrunerM , NishriY , LuriaG , DoriI , MatanE , Philosoph-HadasS , UmielN , HagiladiA (2005) Effects of supplied nitrogen form and quantity on growth and postharvest quality of Ranunculus asiaticus flowers . HortSci40:1879-1886
    3. BerutoM , DeberghP (2004) Micropropagation of Ranunculus asiaticus:a review and perspectives . Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult77:221-230
    4. CervenyCB , MillerWB , BjorkmanT , MattsonNS (2012) Soaking temperature of dried tuberous roots influences hydration kinetics and growth of Ranunculus asiaticus (L.) . HortSci47:212-216
    5. ChakrabortyP , ChoudhuriP (2016) Effect of gibberellic acid on g rowth, y ield and quality parameters of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in terai zone of West Bengal . Environ Ecol34:596-599
    6. DhoogheE , GrunewaldW , ReheulD , GoetghebeurP , Van LabekeMC (2012) Floral characteristics and gametophyte development of Anemone coronaria L. and Ranunculus asiaticus L. (Ranunculaceae) . Sci Hortic138:73-80
    7. DograS , PandeyRK , BhatDJ (2012) Influence of gibberellic acid and plant geometry on growth, flowering and corm production in gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus) under Jammu agroclimate . Int J Pharm Bio Sci3:1083-1090
    8. EmamiH , SaeidniaM , HatamzadehA , BakhshiD , GhorbaniE (2011) The effect of gibberellic acid and benzyladenine in growth and flowering of lily (Lilium longiflorum) . Adv in Environ Biol5:1606-1611
    9. EsfahaniRN , EbrahimiHR , MiriHR (2016) Effect of gibberellic acid and zinc sulfate on the quality and quantity (Gladiolus grandiflorus) in Isfahan . Int J Biol Pharm Allied Sci5:156-164
    10. GuptaR , ChakrabartySK (2013) Gibberellic acid in plant . Plant Signal Behav8:e25504
    11. GuneyK , CetinM , SevikH , GuneyKB (2016) Influence of germination percentage and morphological properties of some hormones practice on Lillium martagon L. seeds . Oxid Commun39:466-474
    12. HanSS (1995) Growth regulators delay foliar chlorosis of easter lily leaves . J Amer Soc Hort Sci120:254-258
    13. JanowskaB (2013) Effect of growth regulators on flower and leaf yield of the calla lily (Zantedeschia Spreng.) . HortSci (Prague)2:78-82
    14. JanowskaB (2014) Effect of benzyladenine on flower and leaf y ield of calla l ily (Zantedeschia Spreng.) . Blug J Agric Sci20:633-637
    15. KhanFN , RahmanMM , HossainMM , HossainT (2011) Effect of benzyl adenine and gibberellic acid on dormancy breaking and growth in gladiolus cormels . Thai J Agric Sci44:165-174
    16. KimHJ , MillerWB (2009) GA4+7 plus BA enhances postproduction quality in pot tulips . Postharvest Biol Technol51:272-277
    17. ManimaranP , GhoshS , PriyankaR (2017) Bulb size and growth regulators on the growth and performance of bulbous ornamental crops – a review . Chem Sci Rev Lett6:1277-1284
    18. MayoliRN , IsutsaDK , TunyaGO (2009) Growth of Ranunculus cutflower under tropical high altitude conditions. 1 : Effects of GA3 and shade . Afr J Hort Sci2:13-28
    19. MillerBW (2012) Current status of growth regulator usage in flower bulb forcing in North America . Floriculture Ornamental Biotech6:35-44
    20. PogroszewskaE , LaskowskaH , DurlakW (2007) The effect of gibberellic acid and benzyladenine on the yield of (Allium karataviense Regel.) ‘IVORY QUEEN’ . Acta Sci Pol Hortorum Cultus6:15-19
    21. RamzanF , YounisA , RiazA , AliS , SiddiqueMI , LimKB  (2014) Pre-planting exogenous application of gibberellicacid influences spouting, vegetative growth, flowing, and subsequent bulb characteristics of ‘Ad-Rem’ tulip . Hort Environ Biotechnol55:479-488
    22. SajidGM , KaukabM , AhmadZ (2009) Foliar application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and nutrients for improvement of lily flowers . Pak J Bot41:233-237
    23. SajjadY , JaskaniMJ , QasimM , MehmoodA , AhmadN , AkhtarG (2015) Pre-plant soaking of corms in growth regulators influences the multiple sprouting, floral and corm associated traits in Gladiolus grandifloras L. J Agr Sci 7:173-181
    24. SajjadY , JaskaniMJ , AsifM , QasimM (2017) Application of plant growth regulators in ornamental plant: a review . Pak J Agri Sci54:327-333
    25. SarkarMAH , HossainMI , UddinAFMJ , UddinMAN , SarkarMD (2014) Vegetative, floral and yield attributes of gladiolus in response to gibberellic acid and corm size . Sci Agri7:242-246
    26. SharmaP , SharmaYD , GuptaYC (2009) Effect of paclobutrazol and benzyl adenine on oriental lily hybrids . J Hort Sci4:128-133
    27. ShahriW , TahirI (2011) Flower development and senescence in Ranunculus asiaticus L . J Fruit and Ornamental PlantRes19:123-131
    28. TahaRA (2012) Effect of some growth regulators on growth, flowering, bulb productivity and chemical composition ofiris plants . J Hort Sci Ornamental Plants4:215-250
    29. Valdes-AguilarLA , GrieveCM , PossJ , MellanoMA (2009) Hypersensitivity of Ranunculus asiaticus to salinity and alkaline pH in irrigation water in sand cultures . HortSci44:138-144
    30. YruelaI (2015) Plant development regulation: Overview and perspectives . J Plant Physiol182:62-78